தேட தட்டச்சு செய்யவும்

விரைவான வாசிப்பு படிக்கும் நேரம்: 4 நிமிடங்கள்

இனப்பெருக்க சுகாதார திட்டங்களின் தாக்கத்தை அதிகரித்தல்

Leveraging Key Influence Groups

புருண்டியில் உள்ள இளம்பெண்கள் மற்றும் இளம் பெண்களின் இனப்பெருக்க ஆரோக்கியத்தை பாதிக்கும் சமூக நெறிமுறைகளை ஆராயும் USAID-ன் நிதியுதவியுடன் கூடிய பாசேஜஸ் திட்டத்தின் சமீபத்திய ஆய்வை இந்த பகுதி சுருக்கமாகக் கூறுகிறது.. We explore how the research findings can be applied in the design of reproductive health programs to identify and involve key influence groups that affect social norms.

The dialogue between parents and children regarding sexual and reproductive healthdoes not exist! Why? Because of social norms, parents think that by talking about this with their children, they will be saying bad things. That’s why menstruation comes as a surprise to 13- or 14-year-olds.”

Participant, focus group with teachers, Burundi, 2020

சமூக விதிமுறைகள் are particularly relevant among young people. Compared to adults, young people have less power in society to make or break social rules. கூடுதலாக, peer relationships become more influential during adolescence. In many low- மற்றும் நடுத்தர வருவாய் நாடுகள், such as Burundi, social norms are not well documented, but likely have a large influence on adolescent girls and young women’s ability to access reproductive health information and care.

Social Norms Study Terms

  • சமூக விதிமுறைகள்: Perceived informal, பெரும்பாலும் எழுதப்படாதவை, rules that define acceptable, பொருத்தமானது, மற்றும் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட குழு அல்லது சமூகத்திற்குள் கட்டாய நடவடிக்கைகள்.
  • Key influence group: A group of people who play a specific role in a social setting and whose opinion or behavior influences a norm in terms of either enforcing it or supporting individuals to go against it.
    • Enforcer: Exerts social pressure to comply with a norm.
    • Social supporter: Supports individuals or helps overcome a norm.
  • Sanctions: Negative (எ.கா., punishments or stigmatization) or positive (எ.கா., rewards or encouragement) social consequences of opposing or following a norm.

தி பாதைகள் திட்டம்—funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)— recently completed a qualitative study researching social norms affecting the reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in four provinces in Burundi. Focus group discussions and a problem tree exercise adapted from the Social Norms Exploration Tool (SNET) explored social norms around the following:

  1. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene management (MHM).
  2. Sexual risk behaviors.
  3. Sexual violence.
  4. Fertility and voluntary use of family planning.

The study also examined the groups of people that influence norms for each of these behaviors, and in what ways.

A group of women sitting around a piece of paper. One women is drawing a tree on the paper. Credit: Diane Mpinganzima
கடன்: Diane Mpinganzima

What Can We Learn from the Burundi Study?

  • Figure 1. Proximity of influencers to adolescent girls and young women

    Figure 1. Proximity of influencers to adolescent girls and young women. இங்கே கிளிக் செய்யவும் for web accessible version.

    Targeting adolescents alone will not achieve social norms change: The study identified eight different reproductive health social norms that adolescent girls were expected to follow, such as managing their menstrual hygiene discreetly and not getting pregnant before marriage. Yet, they did not have sufficient support, power, நிறுவனம், or information to make informed, independent choices about their reproductive health. Rather, the social norms that adolescents are pressured to comply with are enforced and upheld by many others in the broader social community.

  • Adolescents are influenced directly and indirectly by different groups: Study participants named a variety of different types of people who influence adolescent reproductive health norms. Some groups included individuals such as parents, sexual partners, and peers with whom adolescents interact frequently and have direct interpersonal relationships. Other groups within the community, such as religious leaders, local administrators, and health providers, have less direct interaction with adolescents but still exert influence due to their social status.
  • Influence can be both positive and negative: The influence of these groups took a variety of forms, ranging from pressuring adolescents to comply to supporting or helping them overcome harmful social norms. We refer to these groups as Enforcers and Social Supporters, respectively. கூடுதலாக, these Enforcers and Social Supporters placed both negative and positive social consequences (sanctions) on adolescents. உதாரணத்திற்கு, community members shamed (negative sanction) adolescent girls for using contraception (a behavior that was not a social norm).
  • Influence groups play multiple roles: Some influence groups served as both Enforcers and Social Supporters. உதாரணத்திற்கு, parents influenced adolescents’ reproductive health social norms in multiple ways (Figure 2).
Illustration of range of parental influence on adolescents’ reproductive health norms compliance

Figure 2. Illustration of range of parental influence on adolescents’ reproductive health norms compliance.
இங்கே கிளிக் செய்யவும் for web accessible version.

How Can These Learnings be Applied in Programs?

The fact that multiple influence groups exist, many of which both enforce and provide support for opposing harmful norms, has important implications for program design and implementation.

  • Identify indirect as well as direct influences: Identifying groups with both direct and indirect influence on specific behaviors in a given social context should be considered during program design. உதாரணத்திற்கு, community members, particularly those with more social status or power, could be equally as important as family members and peers who have direct relationships with program participants.
  • Involve multiple groups in addition to adolescents: Since adolescents do not hold the power to change or defy social norms by themselves, programs are likely to be more effective when they involve key influence groups in meaningful ways. Two examples are convening health providers to reflect on their own biases and working with faith leaders to incorporate positive views on reproductive health in their sermons.
  • Encourage and redirect simultaneously: Programs should keep in mind that many influence groups play both positive and negative roles in upholding social norms. Program messages and activities should be designed to minimize and redirect how these groups enforce harmful norms. அதே நேரத்தில், programs should nurture the positive roles that these groups play, which could contribute to the development of new positive norms.
புருண்டியில் பெண்கள் குழு.
எலிசபெத் காஸ்டன்பேடர்

Social and Behavioral Scientist, FHI 360

எலிசபெத் (Betsy) Costenbader is a Social and Behavioral Scientist in the Global Health, Population and Nutrition Division at FHI 360. She has collaborated on and led research and intervention projects among populations at-risk for sexual and reproductive health outcomes for more than a decade with a primary focus on understanding the social context of risk; particularly, the role of social norms and networks. டாக்டர். Costenbader recently served as the Leader of the Measurement Task Group on the USAID-funded Passages study and Leader of the Measurement subgroup of the Bill and Melinda Gates-funded Global Learning Collaborative to Advance Normative Change. Both projects focused on building the evidence base and promoting practices at scale that improve the health and well-being of adolescents and young people through social norm transformation. As part of the Passages project, டாக்டர். Costenbader served as the Principal Investigator on a formative study that employed participatory qualitative methods in Burundi to uncover gender norms affecting GBV and sexual and reproductive health outcomes for adolescent girls and young women (https://irh.org/resource-library/).

கேத்தரின் பாக்கர்

மூத்த ஆராய்ச்சி அசோசியேட், FHI 360

உலகெங்கிலும் குறைந்த சேவை பெறும் மக்களின் ஆரோக்கியம் மற்றும் நல்வாழ்வை மேம்படுத்துவதில் கேத்தரின் ஆர்வமாக உள்ளார். திட்ட நிர்வாகத்தில் அனுபவம் வாய்ந்தவர்; தொழில்நுட்ப உதவியாளர்; கண்காணிப்பு, மதிப்பீடு, மற்றும் கற்றல் (MEL); மற்றும் தரமான மற்றும் அளவு சமூக மற்றும் நடத்தை ஆராய்ச்சி. கேத்தரினின் சமீபத்திய பணி சுய-கவனிப்பில் இருந்தது; DMPA-SC சுய ஊசி (அறிமுகம், அளவு-அப், மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி); இளம் பருவத்தினரின் இனப்பெருக்க ஆரோக்கியம் தொடர்பான சமூக விதிமுறைகள்; கருக்கலைப்பு பராமரிப்பு (பிஏசி); வாஸெக்டமிக்கு வக்காலத்து வாங்குதல்- மற்றும் நடுத்தர வருவாய் நாடுகள்; மற்றும் எச்.ஐ.வி உடன் வாழும் இளம் பருவத்தினரின் எச்.ஐ.வி சேவைகளில் தக்கவைத்தல். இப்போது கொலராடோவில் உள்ளது, அமெரிக்கா, அவரது பணி அவளை புருண்டி உட்பட பல நாடுகளுக்கு அழைத்துச் சென்றது, கம்போடியா, நேபாளம், ருவாண்டா, செனகல், வியட்நாம், மற்றும் ஜாம்பியா. ஜான்ஸ் ஹாப்கின்ஸ் ப்ளூம்பெர்க் ஸ்கூல் ஆஃப் பப்ளிக் ஹெல்த் நிறுவனத்தில் சர்வதேச இனப்பெருக்க ஆரோக்கியத்தில் நிபுணத்துவம் பெற்ற பொது சுகாதாரத்தில் முதுகலைப் பட்டம் பெற்றுள்ளார்..

2.8கே காட்சிகள்
மூலம் பகிரவும்
இணைப்பை நகலெடுக்கவும்